5. Exotic new particle
In this theory, the concept of field and particle has been developed. It states that the electron forms an electric field around it and in the similar manner a graviton develops a gravitational field around it. Thus, it is clear that behind every field specific particles play a major role.
Many particle physicists claim that the energy of the field must be transmitted by its force particles rather than the field. Similar concept was used to explain the dark energy and dark matter. As the graviton is invisible, so is the dark energy.
4. F(R) Theories
Such theories explain the model for vast universe. The formula was formulated by the University of Chicago which states that for specific value of R, the expansion of universe can be defined and dark energy has an important role in the expansion of the universe.
Many researchers consider this theory as appropriate and consider that when there is strong gravitational force, the other forces are not visible. Further research is being conducted on this theory by the same University.
3. Multiverses and the anthropic principle
As mentioned above, the modern physics has not been able to calculate the value of dark energy which is one of its greatest flaws. Although the quantum physics could calculate a very lesser amount but according to the modern physics its value is 10 raised to power 120 times. Considering this, the anthropic principle was established, which states that the constants of chemistry and physics are present to support the life of the universe.